THE WAY PAPER IS MOVING...

TechnicalTerms

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Paperlink Image

Glossary of paper terms


Acid Free
Papers, which have a pH value above seven. These do not contain acid, which causes accelerated ageing.

 

Airknife Coating
A pigment coating method used for top quality coated papers. The coating is applied to the bed of paper by a roller and the surplus coating is metered off and smoothed by an air doctor. Often referred to as “triple coated”.


Airmail Paper
Paper with a basis weight of about 30gsm. It is used for airmail communications.

 

Alkaline
Papers, which have a pH value above seven, may be referred to as acid-free. These do not contain acid, which causes accelerated aging.

 

Antique
Antique finish paper has a toothy, open texture created by felts or dandy rolls that leave a hand-crafted look.

 

Art paper
Quality mineral coated paper with full fibre coverage, has good smoothness, high brightness and opacity with even ink absorption.

 

Bank Paper
Papers used for stationery forms and other documents with a basis weight of more than 45gsm and less than 60gsm.

 

Bible Paper
A think low-grammage paper, with a basis weight of about 40gsm. It has good opacity and is used for bibles, hymn books or other books of high pagination.

 

Bond
Uncoated paper used for stationery, forms etc., having a base weight of above 50gsm.

 

Bulk
Bulk is the thickness of paper relative to its basis weight.

 

Calendering
The process of smoothing the paper by passing through a series of roll nips.

 

Caliper
The caliper is the thickness of a single sheet of paper, expressed in thousandths of a millimetre (microns).

 

Carbonless
Bond paper chemically treated to release minuscule ink capsules when pressure is applied (with a pen or typewriter etc.). It is used where multiple copies are required e.g. invoice books, application forms.

 

Cartridge
Strong, uncoated, bulky and lightly sized paper with a basis weight of more than 80gsm and less than 135gsm.

 

Cast Coated
Top quality paper and board with excellent smoothness and the highest paper gloss. It is made by pressing the paper against a hot metal drum while the coating is still wet.

 

Chain Marks
Distribution of the paper fibres to form a pattern similar to a chain or rope, which run parallel to the paper machine.

 

Chemical Pulping
The process of reduing a vegetable source of fibre to its component parts (fibres) during a cooking phase with various chemical liquors, such as sulphate, sulphite, etc.

 

Chromo Paper & Board
Usually one side coated, having a heavy coating weight and containing the best types of mineral pigments for high quality multi–colour printing.

 

Coated Paper
Art paper coated with Kaolin (clay) on one or both sides. The coating adds smoothness and whiteness. It fills the valley and allows the ink to set on top, rather than be absorbed, which results in sharper, brighter images.

 

Dandy Roll
A wire mesh roll used to close the sheet on the papermaking machine when the paper is still in a wet state. The pattern of the wire mesh is left in the paper forming a watermark.

 

Deckle
The maximum width that paper or board can be made on a particular paper machine.

 

Deckle Edge
The feathered edges of a sheet of paper, made by hand or in a mould.

 

Duplex Board
Two sheet of stock either the same, or different, are laminated together to form a two-ply board.

 

ECF
Elemental Chlorine Free. This pulp is bleached without the use of chlorine gas. However, some chlorine dioxide is used, plus other non-chlorine based compounds such as oxygen.

 

Embossed
A plain paper containing a relief image which can be of different patterns. These embossing may resemble linen, slate, felt tweed or other natural or manufactured materials.

 

Felt Marked
Felt marked papers have an elegant, toothy texture which is formed at the wet end of the paper machine by patterned wool or synthetic feels, These redistribute but do not crush fibres, so felt marked papers retain a uniform surface structure.

 

Fibres
The whole range of fibres used for making paper, consisting of coniferous softwood, deciduous hardwood and certain grasses and synthetic fibres in a few grades. 

 

Filler
Mineral pigment such as china clay which is added to the fibre content of paper to improve print quality by making the paper smoother with improved opacity and brightness, and also giving it a greater affinity with printing inks.

 

Finish
The surface characteristics of a sheet of paper.

 

FSC
Forest Stewardship Council certified, indicates that forests are well managed according to strict environmental, social and economic standards.

 

Gloss
Gloss is the specular reflectance value at a given angle, usually 75 degrees in the paper industry.

 

Grain Direction
Predominant direction in which the paper fibres become aligned during manufacturing.

 

Grammage
The basis weight of the paper expressed in grams per square meter (gsm).

 

Groundwood Paper
Paper made from pulp created when wood is ground mechanically, rather than refined chemically.

 

Index Board
A single or twin wire pulp board in white or colours that are smooth with good formation and have been hard sized for writing as they are used for filling systems.

 

Ivory Boards
Were once ivory coloured, but now often white with a smooth finish and even formation, used for invitations, greetings and visiting cards.

 

Kraft paper
Strong paper used fro wrapping and envelopes.

 

L.W.C.
Light Weight Coated grades have a low basis weight and are used for printing magazines and brochures.


Laid Paper
Laid finish papers feature a subtle linear pattern called “laid lines” which are created by a dandy roll with wire running parallel to its axis. These wires are attached by chain wires which often leaven “chain lines” at right angles to the laid lines.

 

Laser Bond
Bond paper made especially smooth and dry to run well through laser printers.

 

Lignin
The coloured substance in wood that holds the cellulose fibres together. It is dissolved and bleached out during the pulping process.

 

Linen Paper
Paper that has been embossed with a pattern resembling linen.

 

Long Grain
Paper whose fibres run parallel to the long dimension of the sheet.

 

Machine Coated
Paper or board which is pigment coated as a continuous operation at the end of the paper making machine. Usually low quality grades with light coating weight.

Marble Paper
Inks are added to the paper during the paper making process to resemble marble.

 

Matt Finish
These papers have good brightness, opacity and bulk and they will produce excellent print quality free of any interfering print gloss.

 

Mechanical Pulping
The process of reducing wood to its component parts, fibres and fibre bundles, by mechanical means – done either by grinding wood against an abrasive stone or as is the more recent development, refining wood chips in a specially designed refiner.

 

MF Machine Finish
Uncoated paper calendered on the end of the paper machine with a stack of metal rolls. Has good bulk but is not particularly smooth.

 

MG Machine Glazed
Paper that is dried on the papermaking machine with a single very large drying cylinder called a Yankee drier. The side of the paper in contact with the drying cylinder is given a high gloss finish, the reverse side remains rough.

 

Mottled Paper
Papers with variegated effects achieved by a mixture of dyed fibres or drip colour on the wet pulp.

 

Mould Made Paper
A good imitation of hand-made paper. It is made on a cylinder mould. Different sized sheets of paper can be produced with four deckle edges.

 

Neutral Sizing
One method used to reduce the rate at which water penetrates the sheet. It is non-acid and prolongs the life of paper and is used for acid free paper as opposed to the traditional rosin sizing which is acidic.

 

Newsprint
Paper made from ground wood pulp and recycled pulp. It is used for printing newspapers.

 

Off-Machine Coated
(Process Coated) Body paper, which is coated as a separate operation from the actual papermaking of the body paper.

 

Offset Cartridge
Originally this was a strong paper with a fairly rough which printed well, it now means strong, surface sized uncoated paper reasonably even-sided supplied in a range of finishes.

 

Opacity
Opacity is determined by the amount of show-through. The less the show-through, the greater the opacity.

 

Optical Bleaching Agent
An almost colourless substance used in paper to improve brightness by converting ultra-violet light into visible light.

 

Parchment Paper
Paper, which has a variegated surface that, simulates the colour and translucence of original parchments, a leather-like product derived from lamb skin or the bladder of larger animals.

 

pH
A measure of the Hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. A pH of seven is neutral; below seven is acid and above seven is alkaline.

 

Picking
The rupture of paper surface during printing.

 

Porosity
The measure of air penetration through a given area of paper at a given pressure. Porosity affects print density, print gloss and ink strike-through as well as ink drying time.

 

Printability
Printing performance of paper with respect to its appearance, including the ease with which the quality is obtained.

 

Quire
Twenty five sheets in fine paper and twenty four in wrapping.

 

Rag Content
These are high quality papers made from stock containing at least 25% rag. Rag content contains cotton and/or linen fibres which makes the paper strong and durable.

 

Real Art
Top quality coated paper with at least 30gsm coating per side. Many coating pigments are used, not only clay.

 

Ream
Modern standard - 500 sheets of paper, of any given dimension.

 

Recycled Paper
New paper made entirely, or in part from waste paper as either pre or post consumer waste.

 

S.A.L.P.
Sell Adhesive Label Paper. Coated or uncoated paper with one side adhesive, used for labels.


Self Contained
Ink capsules and clay are mixed and applied to one surface of paper. This will yield an image when pressure is applied, writing or typing on a normal uncoated sheet places on top of the S.C. sheet.

 

Short Grain
Indicates that the shortest direction of a sheet of paper or board is in the substrate’s cross direction, and is expressly written, e.g. 900x640.

 

Show-Through
What is seen of the printed image on the reverse side of a sheet due to low opacity.

 

Sizing
Additional materials added to paper fibres in order that they resist the spontaneous penetration of aqueous liquids.

 

Smooth
Smooth finishes range from the perfectly smooth to the barely textured.(Roughness measurements purport to measure the roughness as the height of surface asperities in micrometers).


Special Matt
A finish between gloss and matt. Not as flat as a traditional matt.

 

Speckled
Grains are added to the sheet to create a speckled look. May also be a result of ink in recycled papers.

 

Supercalendered
(SC) Paper calendered using alternative chromed and fibre rollers to produce an ultra smooth sheet.

 

TCF
Board consisting of three layers run together on the board machine.

 

Triplex Board
Board consisting of three layers run together on the board machine.

 

Uncoated Paper
Paper that has not been coated on the surface with clay, calcium carbonate etc.

 

Vellum
A vellum finish is imparted by special felts, giving it a “tooth” similar to but smoother than an antique finish.

 

Velvet
Ultra smooth matt finish.

 

Watermarks
Watermarks are imprinted by dandy rolls into the paper. A design or word is impressed into the paper as it passes through the wet end of the paper machine. This can only be seen when the sheet is held up to the light.

 

Woodfree
Paper that is primarily made from chemical wood pulp, with no more than 10% mechanical wood pulp, which is used for the best grades of paper.

 

Wove
May also be referred to as smooth. The wove surface is imparted by ordinary “wet felts”. These leave no distinguishing visual feature.

 

 

 

Making sense of baffling printing terms

You know everything there is to know about your business. Yet, when it comes to dealing with the printers you're probably not clued up on the intricate details. This can be to your disadvantage. Whether you work in the publishing industry, or you're setting up your own business and keen to spew out as many brochures and catalogues in record time, you'll probably have to deal with the printers on a fairly regular basis. Like every other industry, the Printing industry has its very own language and terms. Perhaps familiarizing yourself with few printing terms will stand you in good stead.

Arm yourself with the glossary below so that when the Printing experts bombard you with their "secret code", you'll be able to decode their "gibberish".

Abrasion Resistance
The resistance to scratching or scuffing of a surface of paper.

Accordion Fold
A type of paper folding in which each fold of a brochure runs in the opposite direction to the previous fold of the brochure creating an accordion affect.

Acetate
A clear or translucent plastic sheet material of a variety of colors used as an overlay usually.

Additive Colors
In photographic reproduction the primary colors of red, green, and blue which are mixed to form all other colors. Also known as RGB.

Aerate
This refers to a process whereby air is blown onto paper sheets to separate the sheets.

Agate
Type size of 5 ½ points.

Airbrush
A compressed air tool that dispenses a fine mist of ink; used in illustration and photo retouching software to create effects.

Amberlith
Was used in laying film and stripping. Red-orange acetate used for masking mechanicals when photographing for plates. The Amberlith area appears black to the camera, and prints clear on the resulting film. Not used much anymore.

Anodized Plate
In lithography, a plate manufactured with a barrier of aluminum oxide, which prevents chemical reactions that break down the plate; it provides optimum press performance and can carry very small dot %'s.

Antique Finish
Paper with a rough surface.

Antiskinning Agent
An antioxidant agent used to prevent inks from skinning over in the can or on press.

Aqueous Coating
Water soluble coating that protects ink and enables quick handling of piece. Comes in gloss, satin, and dull-Usually done in-line.

Aqueous Plate
Water soluble plate coatings, which are less toxic and less polluting which enables quick handling of paper and high level of gloss.

Art Work
Any materials or images which are prepared for graphic reproduction and can be produced manually or by software.

Art-Lined Envelope
An envelope that is lined with fine paper; can be colored patterned or foiled.

Artwork
All illustrated material, photo and charts etc., that is prepare for reproduction which can be produced manually or by software.

Author or Customer Alterations (AA, CA's)
Changes made after the proof stage where a customer is responsible for additional charges.

Back Lining
The fixing of material, either paper or cloth, to the inside of a book before it is bound. Can be colored, textured or finishes.

Back to Back
Printing applied to both side of a sheet of paper.

Backbone
The spine of the binding which connects the front of the book with the back of the book; also called back or spine.

Background
Image that appears faintest and the type is usually printed over the background and used as effect.

Back slant
Type that tilts to the left of backward direction; opposite of italic type, which is to the right.

Banner
The top primary headline usually spanning the entire width of a page. Used to draw eye or grab attention.

Base
The support onto which printing plates are fixed and is usually metal.

Base Film
The foundation material onto which the film positives are stripped for making printing plates and becomes obsolete and was used primarily in the stripping process.

Base Line
Term used to describe the imaginary horizontal line upon which stand capitals, lower case letters, punctuation points, etc.

Base Size
Standard size of paper stock; even though it is required size may be smaller or larger. It is different for types of paper, book and cover weight.

Basis Weight
Basis weight refers to the weight, in pounds, of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to standard size for that particular paper grade and varies based on coated, uncoated, book and cover.

Bed
The steel flat table of a cylinder printing press upon which the type or die sits during the printing process.

Boldface
Type characteristic using bold or thicker lines.

Bible Paper
A thin but strong paper (opaque).

Binder's Board
A heavy paperboard with a cloth covering that is used for hardback or case back binding of books.

Binding
Various methods of securing folded sections together and or fastening them to a cover, to form single copies of a book. Used on a spine.

Black
Ink that is one of the process colors. Also known as K in CMYK.

Blanket
On offset presses a fabric-reinforced sheet of rubber to transfer the impression from the plate onto the impression cylinder.

Blanket to Blanket Press
A printing method in which there are two blanket cylinders thought which a sheet of paper is passed and printed on both sides. Used on smaller presses or duplicators.

Bleed
Extra ink area that crosses the trim line.

Blind Emboss
Raising of the image on paper using a die and counter die with no ink involved.

Blind Embossing
Raising of images that are not inked or gold leafed.

Blind Folio
Page number not printed on page.

Blind Image
A problem that arises in the lithography process when an image loses it ink receptivity and fails to print.

Block
Illustrations or line are etched into zinc or cooper plates mounted to wood and used in letterpress printing.

Blow-up
Enlargement of photos, copies or line art.

Blue-Line
Photographic proof made from flats for checking accuracy, layout and imposition before plates are made. Becoming obsolete.

Boldface
Type that has a heavier stroke that makes it more bold.

Bond
A grade of durable writing, printing and typing paper that has a standard size of 17 x 22 inches. Used in business correspondence.

Book
A general classification to describe papers used to print books bookweight; its standard size is 25 x38 inches. A printed work that contains mare than 64 pages. Can be bound in a number of ways.

Bristol Board
A board paper of various thickness; having a smooth finish and used for printing and drawing.

Brocade
A heavily embossed paper.

Brochure
A pamphlet to convey or promote message.

Bronzing
A printing method whereby special ink is applies to sheets and then a powder is applied producing a metallic effect. Particles will come off on hand or in printers.

Buckle Folder
A piece of binding machinery with rollers that fold the paper.

Bulk
A term given to paper to describe its thickness relative to its weight.

Bullet
A boldface square or dot used before a sentence to emphasize its importance.

Burn
A term used in plate making to describe applying light to "burn" the image onto plate.

Burnish
A term used for the process of "rubbing down" lines and dots on a printing plate.

CS
Graphics software.

Caliper
The measurement of thickness of paper expressed in thousandths of an inch or mils.

Camera Ready
A term given to any copy, artwork etc., that is prepared for photographic reproduction. Can be manually created or created on computer.

Caps & Lowercase
Instructions in the typesetting process, that indicate the use of a capital letter and the rest of the letters in lower case.

Caps & Small Caps
Two sizes of capital letters made in one size of type.

Case
The thick cover of a hardbound book.

Case Binding
Books bound using hard board (case) covers.

Casing In
the process of placing in and adhering a book to its case covers.

Cast Coated
A paper that is coated with clay and then pressure dried using a polished roller which gives an enamel like hard extra high gloss finish.

Chalking
Print on paper where the absorption is so great that it breaks up ink image creating loose pigment dust.

Chancery Italic
The roots of italic design

Chase
Frame of steel, or cast or wrought iron, in which images are locked up for printing and is used in letterpress or cylinder presses.

Combination Stamp
Process where embossing and foil stamping are done at the same time.

Cutting
Process of cutting paper with guillotine cutter.

Cyan (C)
One of the ink colors (blue) that is used as a process color (CMYK).

Die Cut
Cutting shapes or non-square or rectangular shapes out of paper using die.

Digital Printing
Printing done from digital file.

Distribution Rollers
The rubber coated rollers responsible for the distribution of ink from the fountain to the ink train in presses.

Docutech
Xerox machine that is high end production copier and only does black/black using toner.

Dog Ear
A dog Ear occurs when you fold into a fold (such as a letter fold). At the side of one of the folds an indentation forms. It may look like a small inverted triangle. This usually happens when folds are too tight.

Dot
The smallest individual element of a halftone which can be expressed in %.

Dot Gain
A Dot Gain occurs due to ink absorption in paper causing halftone dots to enlarge or spread.

Draw-down
Test of ink color before going to press. Solid stripes on paper to show what ink will look like.

Drier
Describes additives to ink which hasten the drying process.

Drill
The actual drilling of holes into paper for ring or comb binding which uses a bit that turns with sharp edges.

Drop Shadow
A shadow image placed strategically behind an image to create the affect of a shadow from light.

Ductor Roller
The roller between the inking and the dampening rollers.

Dull Finish
Any matte finished paper that has very little reflection.

Dummy
A representation of copy and art elements to be reproduced to duplicate the finished product and has no ink present, which is also called a comp.

Duotone
A two-color halftone reproduction generated from a one-color photo with use of accent color.

Duplex Paper
Paper which has a different color on each side.

Dutch Cut
Odd number of cuts or pieces placed in different directions.

Dutch Cutting
A process of cutting many sheets from the same parent sheet in which the smaller sheets have a different grain direction.

Eggshell Finish
Finish of paper surface that resembles an eggshell achieved by omitting the calendar process. Toothy feel or rough.

Electronic Composition
Composition of text, graphics and pictures.

Electronic Proof
Proof generated from the computer file directly -Inkjet, dye sublimation, digital halftone.

Elliptical Dot
Dots are actually elongated to produce improved middle tones.

Em
A unit of measurement equaling 12 points.

Embossed
Paper finishing where a pattern is pressed into the paper when it is dry which also applies to using die and counter die to impress image into substrate.

Emulsion
A light sensitive substance used as a coating for film; made from a silver halide compound.

Enamel
A term that describes coating on paper.

Engraving
A printing process whereby images are etched onto a plate when ink is applied, the etched areas act as small well to hold the ink; paper is forced against this die and the ink is injected into the paper creating raised images.

Etch
Producing an image on a plate by the use of acid.

Exposure
That stage of the photographic process where the image is produced on the light sensitive material.

Fan Fold
Paper folding that emulates an accordion or fan.

Felt Finish
The smoother side of paper usually a soft weave pattern used for book papers.

Felt Side
It is the top side of the sheet in the paper making process that does not lie on the Fourdrinier wire.

Finish
The surface quality of paper.

Fit
The registration of the print on the substrate.

Flush Cover
Book or booklet etc. having the cover trimmed to the same size as the text.

Foil Stamping
Process where foil is transferred via pressure and heat.

Fold Marks
Markings that show where folds should occur which are located outside of a trimmed area.

Folder
Machine used to fold signatures or brochures.

Folio or Page Number
Number of pages at top or bottom.

Font
Characters that make up a typeface and size.

Form Rollers
The rollers that come into direct contact with the plate of a printing press.

Four Color Printing
Usually means process printing (CMYK).

Fourdrinier
A machine with a copper wire screen that receives the pulp slurry in the paper making process which become the final paper sheet.

Free Sheet
Paper that is free from wood pulp.

Full Color
Term that represents printing in CMYK.

Gang or Ganging
Grouping multiple jobs or forms on same press sheet.

Gather
To assemble sections into single copies of complete sets for binding.

Ghosting
Noticeable difference in density of ink in certain areas next to larger solid areas due to ink rollers running out of capacity to carry enough ink.

Gas Ghosting
Image from one side of sheet showing through to other side due to ink gasses being trapped.

Gilding
Treating Gold leaf edges of books with a liquid agent and made permanent with burnishing tools.

Graduated Screen
An area of image where halftone dots range continuously from one % to another gradually.

Grain
Direction of fibers in a sheet of paper.

Gripper
Metal fingers that hold each sheet of paper as it passes through each unit of the printing press.

Gripper Edge
The side of the paper that the grippers hold to run through the press.

Gate Fold
Fold where both outside edges fold into the middle thus creating a gate.

Guillotine Cutter
Machine that trims paper excess.

Gutter
Space between pages in the printing sheet.

Hairline Register
Very tight register which is the thinnest of the standard printers' rules.

Halftone
Tone graduated image composed of varying sized dots or lines to make a image or picture.

Halftone Screen
Ruled right-angled lines, used to translate the full tone of a photo to the halftone dot image required for printing.

Head Margin
The margin between the top of the printed copy and the trimmed edge.

Hickies
Imperfections in presswork due to dirt on press, in ink or in paper.

High Bulk Paper
Stock that is thicker than normal in relation to its basis weight.

Highlights
The lightest tones of a photo, printed halftone or illustration.

Hot Melt
An adhesive used in the binding process.

House Sheet
This is a term that refers to a paper that a printer keeps on hand in his shop.

IBC
Inside back cover.

IFC
Inside front cover.

Illustrator
Graphic Software.

Image Area
Area of the printing plate that carries the ink and prints on paper.

Image Setter
High resolution output device for producing film from electronically generated page layouts.

Imposition
Arrangement of pages so that they print correctly once folded they are in paginated order.

Impression
Product resulting from one cycle of printing machine where image is transferred to paper.

Indicia
Printed information to replace stamp.

Ink Fountain
The well which holds ink and distributes in to the inking rollers.

Ink Holdout
Ability of paper to not allow absorption on ink into paper.

Inkjet
Type of proofing process or low quality production machine.

Italic
Type that is slanted body forward.

Jacket
The paper cover that goes over a hardbound book.

Jog
To vibrate a stack of finished pages so that they are even.

Jogger
Vibrating platform that evens up the edges of stacks of paper.

Kerning
The measure of space between letters.

Kiss Cut
A light die cut that cuts through first layer but leaves base substrate uncut.

Laid Finish-
A parallel lined paper that has a handmade look.

Layout
A dummy that shows the placement of all the elements.

Leading
Space between the lines of type.

Letterpress
Printing that utilizes ink raised surfaces to create the image. The imprint is made by pressure.

Line Copy
Any copy that can be reproduced with out the use of halftone screens.

Linen
A paper that copies the look and texture of linen cloth.

Lithography
The process of printing the utilizes flat inked surfaces to create the printed images.

M Weight
The actual weight of 1000 sheets of any given size of paper.

Magenta (M)
Also one of the primary colors (CMYK).

Make Ready
Process of adjusting final plate on the press to put work in register.

Match Print
Photographic proof made from color flats to form a composite proof showing color quality this is now done digitally.

Matte Finish
A coated paper finish that has very little reflection of light or dull finish.

Mechanical
A term used to describe finished artwork that is camera ready for reproduction, including all type, photos, illustrations.

Moiré
An undesirable halftone pattern produced by the incorrect angles of halftone screens.

Mottle
A term used to describe spotty or uneven ink absorption.

Natural
Papers that have a color similar to cream, off white or ivory.

Negative
Film that contains the same images s the original print, except that all colors and shades are reversed, becoming obsolete.

OBC
Outside back cover.

OFC
Outside front cover.

Offset
The most commonly used printing method. The image is transferred from plate to blanket to impression cylinder to paper. Thereby the image is being offset.

Offset Paper
A term used for uncoated paper stock.

Offshore Paper
Any papers made outside the US and Canada.

On Demand Printing
Printing done to meet immediate demand needs.

Onionskin
A light bond paper used for typing. It is very uncommon these days.

Opacity
Ability to prevent two sided printing from showing side to side.

Opaque
A quality of paper that allows little light to pass through.

Opaque Ink
Ink that completely covers through which light cannot shine through.

Over Run
Surplus of quantity ordered.

Overhang Cover
A cover of a book that extends over the trimmed signatures it contains.

Overprinting
Any printing that is done on an area that has already been printed.

Pagemaker
Graphics Software.

Page
One side of a sheet of paper -whether printed or not.

Page Makeup
The assemblage of all the necessary elements required to complete a page.

Parallel Fold
All folds are parallel to each other.

Parchment
A hard finished paper that emulates old paper.

Parent Sheet
A sheet that is larger than the cut stock.

Perf Marks
Markings usually dotted lines showing where the perforations should occur.

Perfect
A term used to describe the binding process where the book makes a squared spine.

Perfect Binding
Binding process where backs of sections are cut off, ground together.

Perfecting Press
A printing press that prints on both sides of the page in a single pass.

Perforating
Punching small holes or slits in a sheet of paper to facilitate tearing along a desired line.

Pica
Standard of measurement, 1/6 inch. 1 pica = 12 points 72 points = 1 inch.

Picking
When the tack of ink is stronger than the surface strength of the paper, some lifting of the paper surface occurs; this is referred to as picking.

Plate
Reproduction of type or cuts in metal, plastic, rubber, or other material, to form a plate bearing an image that can be transferred.

Plate Cylinder
The cylinder on the printing press on which the plate is mounted.

Plate Making
Making a printing plate.

Plate Setter
Machine that images plates directly from digital file.

Point
A measurement unit equal to 1/72 of an inch. 12 points to a pica, 72 points to an inch.

PPI
Pixel per inch.

Premium
Any paper that is considered better than #1 by its manufacturer.

Primary Colors
In printing the four primary colors are cyan (blue), magenta (red), yellow and black.

Process Inks
CMYK, Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black that create images in full color.

Process Printing
CMYK printing.

Proof
A representation of the job given to the customer that should represent final product-this is the last stage before plating.

Quark
Graphics Software.

Rag Paper
Paper with a complete or partial content of cotton fibers.

Ragged Lift
The term given to right-justified type that is uneven on the left.

Ragged Right
The term given to left-justified type that is uneven on the right.

Ream
500 sheets of paper.

Reducer
Any substrate that reduces the tack of ink.

Register
The arrangement of two or more images in exact alignment with each other.

Register Marks
Any cross marks or other symbols used on layout to assure proper registration.

Right Angle Fold
A term that denotes fold that are 90 degrees to each other.

Rub Resistance
Measure of inks ability to resist rubbing or scuffing.

Rubine
A pigment redder than true magenta and is used primarily in mixing other ink colors.

Saddle Stitching
Stitching where the wire staples pass through the spine from the outside and are clinched in the center which is only used with folded sections in four page increments.

Safety Paper
A paper that can not be altered or tampered with easily.

Satin Finish
An uncoated paper very similar to matte paper.

Score
Light indentation to help folding or tearing. Reduces or prevents cracking of folds.

Screen Angles
The placement of halftone screen in printing to avoid unwanted moiré patterns. Frequently used angles are black 45deg, magenta 75deg, yellow 90deg, and cyan 105deg.

Scumming
Ink film on paper due to lack of water balance.

Self Cover
A cover made out of the same paper stock as the internal (guts) sheets.

Sheetwise
The printing of two different images on two different sides of a sheet of paper by turning the paper by turning the page over after the first side is printed and using the same gripper and side guides on press. Also known as a work and back.

Short Run Printing
Denotes runs with small quantities.

Show Through
When the printing on one side of a sheet is seen from the other side and can be helped by using a more opaque sheet.

Side Guide
The guides on the sides of the press that position the sheet sideways as the paper is led towards the front guides. This controls the sheet position sideways for registration.

Side Stitching
Stitching where the staples pass through the paper gathered upon each other and are closed on the underside.

Signature
Printed sheet that consists of a number of pages of a book, paginated so they will fold and bind together as a section of a book-The printed sheet after folding.

Slitting
A term to describe the process of cutting of printed sheets by the cutting wheels of a folding machine.

Spine
Back edge of a book.

Spiral Bind
A binding whereby a wire or plastic is spiraled through holes punched along the binding side which allows the book to lay flat.

Spot Color
Area printed in a second color, other than black.

Spread
The amount of increase in size of image to create ink trap.

Static Neutralizer
Device on a printing press that minimizes the amount of static build up on paper as it passes through the press to enable it run faster.

Step and Repeat
A process of generating multiple exposures by taking an image and stepping it in a set measurement.

Stet
A proofreader's symbol that indicates that the copy, which was marked for correction is actually ok.

Stock
A term for paper or other material to be printed.

Super Calendaring
A machine that produces a high finished paper surface that is extremely smooth and exceptional for printing. (Usually on coated paper).

Synthetic Papers
Substrate not made from wood or cotton pulp. Usually petroleum based plastic materials.

Tack
Adhesive quality of inks.

Tag
A dense, strong uncoated paper stock.

Text
High quality uncoated paper.

Thermography
Raised printing used to simulate engraving, which is printed offset with resin powder and heat that melts the resin on the ink.

Tint
A solid screen that contains all the same % size dots.

Toner
Type of solid ink particles that can be black or color and used on some types of short run digital machines.

Tooth
The rough surfaced finish of papers such as vellum or antique (Not smooth).

Trapping
Spreading or overlapping of colors or images into each other to not show white.

Trim Marks
Marks placed on the sheet to indicate where to cut the page.

Uncalendared
Papers that are not smoothed by going through the calendaring press.

Varnish
A clear shiny material used to add gloss to printed pieces. (Also available in satin or dull).

Vellum
A finish of paper that is rough, and has a degree of tooth.

Vignette
Fade to white of illustration (A photo or illustration etc., in which the tones fade gradually away).

W&B
An abbreviation for work and back (Reference sheetwise/Does not change gripper).

W&F
An abbreviation for work and flop (Changes gripper).

W&T
An abbreviation for work and turn (Does not change gripper).

Washup
Cleaning a particular in from all of the printing elements (rollers, plate, ink fountain etc.) of a press.

Watermark
A translucent mark that is embossed during the papermaking process.

Web
The roll of paper that is used in web printing.

Web Press
Cylinder printing machine in which the paper is fed from a continuous reel, as opposed to sheet fed.

Widow
A single word or two left at the right end or a paragraph.

Wire Stitching or Stapling
To fasten together sheets, signatures, or sections with wire staples.

Writing Paper
Another name for bond paper.

Xerographic Paper
Papers made to reproduce well in copy machines and laser printers.

Yellow (Y)
Also one of process colors (CMYK).

Z Fold
Brochure that is folded in the pattern of a "Z".

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